Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

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A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a permanent, unique name used in the web-based global naming and resolution system that provides for the identification, retrieval, exchange and maintenance of intellectual property.  DOIs assist the publishing community with electronic commerce and copyright management of digital objects published on the Internet. 
 
Development of the DOI System was initiated in 1997 by the Association of American Publishers, and is now managed by the International DOI Foundation. The DOI System was initially developed by the publishing community but is now a non-profit collaboration to develop infrastructure for persistent identification and management of content. Approximately 2000 user organizations make up the system through multiple agencies.
 
Submission of DOIs in STI Announcement Notices
 
DOE sites are encouraged to include optional DOIs in STI announcement notices when possible. DOIs should be included in STI announcement records when only a URL is submitted to point to its availability for OSTI announcement. DOIs should also be included with data elements submitted for copyrighted journal announcement to enable linking capabilities. 
 
DOI Benefits 
  • Provides unequivocal and permanent identification of an item
  • Provides a universal, machine-readable number allowing cross-system communication
  • Allows management of connections to full-text documents
  • Allows seamless searching across diverse resources
  • Ensures users will be redirected when item’s internet address changes
  • Fits into standard URL specification
  • Allows economical implementation 
 
How DOIs Work
 
Using the DOI, an original electronic publication or the full-text or image of a print publication can be given a unique identifier just before or at the time of its creation, and the DOI would remain with it throughout its life span. Different editions or versions of an item each have their own unique DOI.
 
The DOI identification system is based on the DOI Handle System.  A DOI is made up of two components separated by a slash. A detailed description of the scheme is set out in the DOI Handbook. The prefix is assigned to an appropriate grouping of content such as the publisher, label, or imprint by a registration agency.
 
                DOI Example:      Prefix           Suffix    
                                            10.1557/jmr.2010.0195
 
The second component or suffix is a unique character string assigned by the prefix holder to the specific object being identified. Agency or industry numbering systems are typically incorporated within the suffix of the DOI. The suffix may be assigned to objects of any file size or type and provides the level or granularity of identification based on the object.
 
Using the DOI, an original electronic publication or the full-text or image of a print publication can be given a unique identifier just before or at the time of its creation, and the DOI would remain with it throughout its life span. Different editions or versions of an item each have their own unique DOI.

 

Last updated: September 13, 2011