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Title: Development of Chiral LC-MS Methods for small Molecules and Their Applications in the Analysis of Enantiomeric Composition and Pharmacokinetic Studies

Development of Chiral LC-MS Methods for small Molecules and Their Applications in the Analysis of Enantiomeric Composition and Pharmacokinetic Studies The purpose of this research was to develop sensitive LC-MS methods for enantiomeric separation and detection, and then apply these methods for determination of enantiomeric composition and for the study of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a chiral nutraceutical. Our first study, evaluated the use of reverse phase and polar organic mode for chiral LC-API/MS method development. Reverse phase methods containing high water were found to decrease ionization efficiency in electrospray, while polar organic methods offered good compatibility and low limits of detection with ESI. The use of lower flow rates dramatically increased the sensitivity by an order of magnitude. Additionally, for rapid chiral screening, the coupled Chirobiotic column afforded great applicability for LC-MS method development. Our second study, continued with chiral LC-MS method development in this case for the normal phase mode. Ethoxynonafluorobutane, a fluorocarbon with low flammability and no flashpoint, was used as a substitute solvent for hexane/heptane mobile phases for LC-APCI/MS. Comparable chromatographic resolutions and selectivities were found using ENFB substituted mobile phase systems, although, peak efficiencies were significantly diminished. Limits of detection were either comparable or better for ENFB-MS over heptane-PDA detection. The miscibility of ENFB with a variety of commonly used organic modifiers provided for more » flexibility in method development. For APCI, lower flow rates did not increase sensitivity as significantly as was previously found for ESI-MS detection. The chiral analysis of native amino acids was evaluated using both APCI and ESI sources. For free amino acids and small peptides, APCI was found to have better sensitivities over ESI at high flow rates. For larger peptides, however, sensitivity was greatly improved with the use of electrospray. Additionally, sensitivity was enhanced with the use of non-volatile additives, This optimized method was then used to simultaneously separate all 19 native amino acids enantiomerically in less than 20 minutes, making it suitable for complex biological analysis. The previously developed amino acid method was then used to enantiomerically separate theanine, a free amino acid found in tea leaves. Native theanine was found to have lower limits of detection and better sensitivity over derivatized theanine samples. The native theanine method was then used to determine the enantiomeric composition of six commercially available L-theanine products. Five out of the six samples were found to be a racemic mixture of both D- and L-theanine. Concern over the efficacy of these theanine products led to our final study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of theanine in rats using LC-ESI/MS. Rats were administered D-, L, and QL-theanine both orally and intra-peritoneally. Oral administration data demonstrated that intestinal absorption of L-theanine was greater than that of D-theanine, while i.p. data showed equal plasma uptake of both isomers. This suggested a possible competitive binding effect with respect to gut absorption. Additionally, it was found that regardless of administration method, the presence of the other enantiomer always decreased overall theanine plasma concentration. This indicated that D- and L- theanine exhibit competitive binding with respect to urinary reabsorption as well. The large quantities of D-theanine detected in the urine suggested that D-themine was eliminated with minimal metabolism, while L-theanine was preferentially reabsorbed and metabolized to ethylamine. Clearly, the metabolic fate of racemic theanine and its individual enantiomers was quite different, placing into doubt the utility of the commercial theanine products. « less
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:837266
Report Number(s):IS-T 2134
TRN: US200506%%74
DOE Contract Number:W-7405-Eng-82
Resource Type:Thesis/Dissertation
Data Type:
Resource Relation:Other Information: TH: Thesis (Ph.D.); Submitted to Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US); PBD: 19 Dec 2004
Research Org:Ames Lab., Ames, IA (US)
Sponsoring Org:US Department of Energy; USDOE Office of Science (SC) (US)
Country of Publication:United States