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Title: Quadrupole Alignment and Trajectory Correction for Future Linear Colliders: SLC Tests of a Dispersion-Free Steering Algorithm

The feasibility of future linear colliders depends on achieving very tight alignment and steering tolerances. All proposals (NLC, JLC, CLIC, TESLA and S-BAND) currently require a total emittance growth in the main linac of less than 30-100% [1]. This should be compared with a 100% emittance growth in the much smaller SLC linac [2]. Major advances in alignment and beam steering techniques beyond those used in the SLC are necessary for the next generation of linear colliders. In this paper, we present an experimental study of quadrupole alignment with a dispersion-free steering algorithm. A closely related method (wakefield-free steering) takes into account wakefield effects [3]. However, this method can not be studied at the SLC. The requirements for future linear colliders lead to new and unconventional ideas about alignment and beam steering. For example, no dipole correctors are foreseen for the standard trajectory correction in the NLC [4]; beam steering will be done by moving the quadrupole positions with magnet movers. This illustrates the close symbiosis between alignment, beam steering and beam dynamics that will emerge. It is no longer possible to consider the accelerator alignment as static with only a few surveys and realignments per year. The alignment in more » future linear colliders will be a dynamic process in which the whole linac, with thousands of beam-line elements, is aligned in a few hours or minutes, while the required accuracy of about 5 pm for the NLC quadrupole alignment [4] is a factor of 20 higher than in existing accelerators. The major task in alignment and steering is the accurate determination of the optimum beam-line position. Ideally one would like all elements to be aligned along a straight line. However, this is not practical. Instead a ''smooth curve'' is acceptable as long as its wavelength is much longer than the betatron wavelength of the accelerated beam. Conventional alignment methods are limited in accuracy by errors in the survey and the fiducials. Beam-based alignment methods ideally only depend upon the BPM resolution and generally provide much better precision. Many of those techniques are described in other contributions to this workshop. In this paper we describe our experiences with a dispersion-free steering algorithm for linacs. This algorithm was first suggested by Raubenheimer and Ruth in 1990 [5]. It h as been studied in simulations for NLC [5], TESLA [6], the S-BAND proposal [7] and CLIC [8]. The dispersion-free steering technique can be applied to the whole linac at once and returns the alignment (or trajectory) that minimizes the dispersive emittance growth of the beam. Thus it allows an extremely fast alignment of the beam-line. As we will show dispersion-free steering is only sensitive to quadrupole misalignments. Wakefield-free steering [3] as mentioned before is a closely related technique that minimizes the emittance growth caused by both dispersion and wakefields. Due to hardware limitations (i.e. insufficient relative range of power supplies) we could not study this method experimentally in the SLC. However, its systematics are very similar to those of dispersion-free steering. The studies of dispersion-free steering which are presented made extensive use of the unique potential of the SLC as the only operating linear collider. We used it to study the performance and problems of advanced beam-based optimization tools in a real beam-line environment and on a large scale. We should mention that the SLC has utilized beam-based alignment for years [9], using the difference of electron and positron trajectories. This method, however, cannot be used in future linear colliders. The goal of our work is to demonstrate the performance of advanced beam-based alignment techniques in linear colliders and to anticipate possible reality-related problems. Those can then be solved in the design state for the next generation of linear colliders. « less
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
TRN: US0404721
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 8 Jun 2004
Research Org:
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (US)
Country of Publication:
United States