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Title: Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the more » tools used to evaluate it. « less
Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:OSTI ID: 759847
Report Number(s):SAND99-1147J
TRN: US0004627
DOE Contract Number:AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:Journal Article
Resource Relation:Journal Name: Risk Analysis; Other Information: Submitted to Risk Analysis; PBD: 14 Jul 2000
Research Org:Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US); Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org:US Department of Energy (US)
Country of Publication:United States
Language:English
Subject: 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; RISK ASSESSMENT; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; HAZARDOUS MATERIALS; HEALTH HAZARDS; CALCULATION METHODS RISK ASSESSMENT; PROBABILISTIC RISK ASSESSMENT; PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT; POLICY ANALYSIS; HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY