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Title: Vadose-zone techniques for estimating groundwater recharge in arid and semiarid regions

Vadose-zone techniques for estimating groundwater recharge in arid and semiarid regions Both physical and chemical methods have been used to estimate recharge in arid and semiarid areas. Our review indicates that indirect, physical approaches, such as water balance and Darcy flux measurements, are the least successful, while methods using tracers (e.g., Cl, [sup 3]H, and [sup 34]Cl) have been the most successful in estimating groundwater recharge in dry regions. Lysimeters, which can directly measure root-zone drainage, have been useful in quantifying recharge, particularly for coarse soils, but are costly to construct and operate. Of the tracer techniques available, Cl balance techniques appear to be the simplest, least expensive, and most universal for recharge estimation. In Australian studies, under native vegetation in semiarid areas, Cl profiles were found to be remarkably uniform, indicating very low and relatively uniform rates of groundwater recharge. Following changes in land use, recharge appeared to become much more variable, increasing more than two orders of magnitude. Methods for scaling point estimates of recharge to large areas using indirect techniques (such as nondestructive electromagnetic induction) have also been developed. In deep unsaturated zones, the pressure response in the soil water may be recorded in the profile, and simple field measurements may be used to obtain semi-independent verification of more » recharge rates determined by using Cl balance techniques. 75 refs., 4 figs. « less
Authors: ; ;
OSTI Identifier:7113326
DOE Contract Number:AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:Journal Article
Resource Relation:Journal Name: Soil Science Society of America Journal; (United States); Journal Volume: 58:1
Country of Publication:United States
Language:English
Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; ARID LANDS; RECHARGE; CHLORINE; CHLORINE 36; DEUTERIUM; GROUND WATER; LYSIMETERS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NITRATES; OXYGEN 18; SOILS; TRACER TECHNIQUES; TRITIUM; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-PLUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CHLORINE ISOTOPES; ELECTRON CAPTURE RADIOISOTOPES; ELEMENTS; EVEN-EVEN NUCLEI; HALOGENS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; HYDROGEN ISOTOPES; ISOTOPE APPLICATIONS; ISOTOPES; LIGHT NUCLEI; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NONMETALS; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; ODD-ODD NUCLEI; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN ISOTOPES; RADIOISOTOPES; STABLE ISOTOPES; WATER; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES 540211* -- Environment, Terrestrial-- Basic Studies-- Radiometric Techniques-- (1990-); 540311 -- Environment, Aquatic-- Basic Studies-- Radiometric Techniques-- (1990-); 990200 -- Mathematics & Computers