Oil pollution by ocean vessels - an environmental tragedy: the legal regime of flags of convenience, multilateral conventions, and coastal states
The dramatic growth in the use of flags of convenience by the maritime industry has become an issue of international concern. A variety of factors: including labor, tax, and environmental interests which impose higher operating costs; have pressured fleet operators to opt for vessel registration in those countries that impose only a minimum of regulation. Consequently, ships bearing a flag of convenience are often characterized by their poor conditions, inadequately trained crews, and frequent collisions. The authors discuss the international legal regime that allows convenient vessel registration, the effects that poorly regulated fleets have on the environment, and current multinational agreements that establish higher safety standards. They propose a multilevel regime to effectively deter continued environmental pollution by ocean vessels.
- OSTI Identifier:
- Resource Type:
- Journal Article
- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: Denver J. Int. Law Policy; (United States); Journal Volume: 10:1
- Research Org:
- Univ. of Denver, CO
- Country of Publication:
- United States
- 58 GEOSCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; MARITIME TRANSPORT; GOVERNMENT POLICIES; LEGAL ASPECTS; OIL SPILLS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; TAXES; CASE LAW; COASTAL REGIONS; ECONOMICS; OCEANOGRAPHY; OIL POLLUTION CONTAINMENT; PETROLEUM; SAFETY STANDARDS; TANKER SHIPS; TREATIES; WATER POLLUTION; WILD ANIMALS; CONTAINMENT; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; LAWS; POLLUTION; SHIPS; STANDARDS; TRANSPORT 580500* -- Oceanography-- (1980-1989); 520500 -- Environment, Aquatic-- Site Resource & Use Studies-- (-1989); 010900 -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Environmental Aspects; 560300 -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 290300 -- Energy Planning & Policy-- Environment, Health, & Safety
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