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Title: Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation

Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the United States. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the 137Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by more » the U.S. and U.S.S.R. atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the 131I and 90Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. « less
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:OSTI ID: 5087075
Resource Type:Journal Article
Resource Relation:Journal Name: Health Physics; (USA); Journal Volume: 57:5
Country of Publication:United States
Language:English
Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; CESIUM 137; LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT; IODINE 131; STRONTIUM 90; TELLURIUM ISOTOPES; AIR POLLUTION; CHERNOBYLSK-4 REACTOR; FALLOUT; INHALATION; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOACTIVE AEROSOLS; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; UKRAINIAN SSR; ACCIDENTS; AEROSOLS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; ALKALINE EARTH ISOTOPES; ASIA; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CESIUM ISOTOPES; COLLOIDS; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; DISPERSIONS; DOSES; EASTERN EUROPE; ENRICHED URANIUM REACTORS; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; EUROPE; EVEN-EVEN NUCLEI; GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS; INTAKE; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; IODINE ISOTOPES; ISOTOPES; LWGR TYPE REACTORS; MASS TRANSFER; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; POLLUTION; POWER REACTORS; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTORS; SOLS; STRONTIUM ISOTOPES; THERMAL REACTORS; USSR; WATER COOLED REACTORS; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES 540130* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 560161 -- Radionuclide Effects, Kinetics, & Toxicology-- Man