Transmission of seismic waves across single natural fractures
Transmission of seismic waves across single natural fractures The effects of fractures and other nonwelded contacts on seismic wave propagation can be modeled as a boundary condition in the seismic wave equation. Seismic stress is continuous across such a boundary, but seismic particle displacement and seismic particle velocity are not. The complete solutions for seismic wave reflection, conversion, and transmission across a displacement and velocity discontinuity between two half-spaces with different densities and elastic properties are derived for all angles of the incident wave. The ratio between the seismic stress across this boundary and the seismic particle displacement and velocity are described by a specific stiffness and a specific viscosity, respectively. Results of laboratory experiments on compressional and shear wave transmission across three different natural fractures in a quartz monzonite are described. Measurements were made at different effective stresses under dry and saturated conditions at room temperature. It is shown that the effect of these fractures on the spectral amplitudes for compressional and shear pulses transmitted across these fractures are described well by a displacement discontinuity for compressional pulses under dry and saturated conditions and by a combined displacement and velocity discontinuity for shear wave pulses under dry and saturated conditions. Values of specific stiffness and specific viscosity more »
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