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Title: The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc),more » PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.« less
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ; ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ; ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ;  [14] ;  [15] ;
  1. Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)
  3. Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  4. Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)
  5. Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile)
  6. South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa)
  7. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
  8. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)
  9. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
  10. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain)
  11. Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)
  12. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
  13. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
  14. Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
  15. NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 794; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States