Title: Effect of improved TLD dosimetry on the determination of dose rate constants for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds

Purpose: To more accurately account for the relative intrinsic energy dependence and relative absorbed-dose energy dependence of TLDs when used to measure dose rate constants (DRCs) for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds, to thereby establish revised “measured values” for all seeds and compare the revised values with Monte Carlo and consensus values. Methods: The relative absorbed-dose energy dependence, f{sup rel}, for TLDs and the phantom correction, P{sub phant}, are calculated for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds using the EGSnrc BrachyDose and DOSXYZnrc codes. The original energy dependence and phantom corrections applied to DRC measurements are replaced by calculated (f{sup rel}){sup −1} and P{sub phant} values for 24 different seed models. By comparing the modified measured DRCs to the MC values, an appropriate relative intrinsic energy dependence, k{sub bq}{sup rel}, is determined. The new P{sub phant} values and relative absorbed-dose sensitivities, S{sub AD}{sup rel}, calculated as the product of (f{sup rel}){sup −1} and (k{sub bq}{sup rel}){sup −1}, are used to individually revise the measured DRCs for comparison with Monte Carlo calculated values and TG-43U1 or TG-43U1S1 consensus values. Results: In general, f{sup rel} is sensitive to the energy spectra and models of the brachytherapy seeds. Values may varymore » up to 8.4% among {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed models and common TLD shapes. P{sub phant} values depend primarily on the isotope used. Deduced (k{sub bq}{sup rel}){sup −1} values are 1.074 ± 0.015 and 1.084 ± 0.026 for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds, respectively. For (1 mm){sup 3} chips, this implies an overall absorbed-dose sensitivity relative to {sup 60}Co or 6 MV calibrations of 1.51 ± 1% and 1.47 ± 2% for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds, respectively, as opposed to the widely used value of 1.41. Values of P{sub phant} calculated here have much lower statistical uncertainties than literature values, but systematic uncertainties from density and composition uncertainties are significant. Using these revised values with the literature’s DRC measurements, the average discrepancies between revised measured values and Monte Carlo values are 1.2% and 0.2% for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds, respectively, compared to average discrepancies for the original measured values of 4.8%. On average, the revised measured values are 4.3% and 5.9% lower than the original measured values for {sup 103}Pd and {sup 125}I seeds, respectively. The average of revised DRCs and Monte Carlo values is 3.8% and 2.8% lower for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds, respectively, than the consensus values in TG-43U1 or TG-43U1S1. Conclusions: This work shows that f{sup rel} is TLD shape and seed model dependent suggesting a need to update the generalized energy response dependence, i.e., relative absorbed-dose sensitivity, measured 25 years ago and applied often to DRC measurements of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds. The intrinsic energy dependence for LiF TLDs deduced here is consistent with previous dosimetry studies and emphasizes the need to revise the DRC consensus values reported by TG-43U1 or TG-43U1S1.« less

Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Country of Publication:

United States

Language:

English

Subject:

07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABSORBED RADIATION DOSES; BRACHYTHERAPY; CALIBRATION; COBALT 60; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DOSE RATES; ENERGY DEPENDENCE; ENERGY SPECTRA; IODINE 125; LITHIUM FLUORIDES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PALLADIUM 103; PHANTOMS; SENSITIVITY; SHAPE; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY