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Title: The Non-Gaussian Nature of Prostate Motion Based on Real-Time Intrafraction Tracking

Purpose: The objective of this work is to test the validity of the Gaussian approximation for prostate motion through characterization of its spatial distribution. Methods and Materials: Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was observed using Calypso 4-dimensional (4D) nonradioactive electromagnetic tracking system. We report the results from a total of 1024 fractions from 31 prostate cancer patients. First, the correlation of prostate motion in right/left (RL), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) direction were determined using Pearson's correlation of coefficient. Then the spatial distribution of prostate motion was analyzed for individual fraction, individual patient including all fractions, and all patients including all fractions. The displacement in RL, AP, SI, oblique, or total direction is fitted into a Gaussian distribution, and a Lilliefors test was used to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis that the displacement is normally distributed. Results: There is high correlation in AP/SI direction (61% of fractions with medium or strong correlation). This is consistent with the longitudinal oblique motion of the prostate, and likely the effect from respiration on an organ confined within the genitourinary diaphragm with the rectum sitting posteriorly and bladder sitting superiorly. In all directions, the non-Gaussian distribution is more common for individual fraction, individual patientmore » including all fractions, and all patients including all fractions. The spatial distribution of prostate motion shows an elongated shape in oblique direction, indicating a higher range of motion in the AP and SI directions. Conclusions: Our results showed that the prostate motion is highly correlated in AP and SI direction, indicating an oblique motion preference. In addition, the spatial distribution of prostate motion is elongated in an oblique direction, indicating that the organ motion dosimetric modeling using Gaussian kernel may need to be modified to account for the particular organ motion character of prostate.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California (United States)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)
  3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States