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Title: Experimental evaluation and basis function optimization of the spatially variant image-space PSF on the Ingenuity PET/MR scanner

Purpose: The Ingenuity time-of-flight (TF) PET/MR is a recently developed hybrid scanner combining the molecular imaging capabilities of PET with the excellent soft tissue contrast of MRI. It is becoming common practice to characterize the system's point spread function (PSF) and understand its variation under spatial transformations to guide clinical studies and potentially use it within resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Furthermore, due to the system's utilization of overlapping and spherical symmetric Kaiser-Bessel basis functions during image reconstruction, its image space PSF and reconstructed spatial resolution could be affected by the selection of the basis function parameters. Hence, a detailed investigation into the multidimensional basis function parameter space is needed to evaluate the impact of these parameters on spatial resolution. Methods: Using an array of 12 × 7 printed point sources, along with a custom made phantom, and with the MR magnet on, the system's spatially variant image-based PSF was characterized in detail. Moreover, basis function parameters were systematically varied during reconstruction (list-mode TF OSEM) to evaluate their impact on the reconstructed resolution and the image space PSF. Following the spatial resolution optimization, phantom, and clinical studies were subsequently reconstructed using representative basis function parameters. Results: Based on the analysismore » and under standard basis function parameters, the axial and tangential components of the PSF were found to be almost invariant under spatial transformations (∼4 mm) while the radial component varied modestly from 4 to 6.7 mm. Using a systematic investigation into the basis function parameter space, the spatial resolution was found to degrade for basis functions with a large radius and small shape parameter. However, it was found that optimizing the spatial resolution in the reconstructed PET images, while having a good basis function superposition and keeping the image representation error to a minimum, is feasible, with the parameter combination range depending upon the scanner's intrinsic resolution characteristics. Conclusions: Using the printed point source array as a MR compatible methodology for experimentally measuring the scanner's PSF, the system's spatially variant resolution properties were successfully evaluated in image space. Overall the PET subsystem exhibits excellent resolution characteristics mainly due to the fact that the raw data are not under-sampled/rebinned, enabling the spatial resolution to be dictated by the scanner's intrinsic resolution and the image reconstruction parameters. Due to the impact of these parameters on the resolution properties of the reconstructed images, the image space PSF varies both under spatial transformations and due to basis function parameter selection. Nonetheless, for a range of basis function parameters, the image space PSF remains unaffected, with the range depending on the scanner's intrinsic resolution properties.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)
  2. Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)
  3. (Switzerland)
  4. (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States