SciTech Connect

Title: Ammonia usage in vapor compression for refrigeration and air-conditioning in the United States

Ammonia usage in vapor compression for refrigeration and air-conditioning in the United States The impending phaseout of CFCs and HCFCs has led to a worldwide search for refrigerants that can provide equivalent performance while not damaging the environment. Long used as a working fluid in industrial and large-scale refrigeration, ammonia provides high efficiency, low initial cost, and no detrimental impact to the environment. However, its toxicity and flammability, along with technical considerations and increased operating costs, deter its use in many refrigeration and cooling applications. Utilization of ammonia in applications where its safety considerations and technical concerns can be addressed provides the best growth opportunity for adoption as a replacement refrigerant. Applications such as district or large-scale cooling, thermal storage, packaged systems, and combined systems hold promise for increased usage of ammonia. Ongoing research and development are providing solutions to technical considerations, and innovations in safety and containment of ammonia are addressing those particular concerns, but code restrictions and regulations present the greatest barrier to wider adoption of ammonia as an alternate refrigerant in the US To encourage wider use, future efforts will need to continue on improved safety and more efficient design, along with an increased emphasis on educating and informing industry and the public about the advantages ammonia and the factors more » restricting its use. « less
Authors: ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:208395
Report Number(s):CONF-9510325--1
ON: DE96005477
DOE Contract Number:AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:Conference
Data Type:
Resource Relation:Conference: 22. International Energy Agency (IEA) annex workshop on compression systems with natural working fluids applications, Trondheim (Norway), 16-17 Oct 1995; Other Information: PBD: [1995]
Research Org:Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:United States
Language:English
Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; AMMONIA; PERFORMANCE; REFRIGERATING MACHINERY; REFRIGERANTS; CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; AIR CONDITIONERS; DISTRICT COOLING; COOLING SYSTEMS; WORKING FLUIDS; AIR CONDITIONING; USA