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Title: Anthropogenic influences on the physical state of submicron particulate matter over a tropical forest

The occurrence of non-liquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Measurements were conducted during two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) that took place during the wet and dry seasons, respectively, of the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign. Air masses representing variable influences of background conditions, urban pollution, and regional and continental scale biomass burning passed over the research site. As the air masses varied, particle rebound fraction, which is an indicator of the mix of physical states in a sampled particle population, was measured in real time at ground level using an impactor apparatus. Micrographs collected by transmission electron microscopy confirmed that liquid particles adhered while non-liquid particles rebounded. Relative humidity (RH) was scanned to collect rebound curves. When the apparatus RH matched ambient RH, 95% of the particles were liquid as a campaign average, although this percentage dropped to as low as 60% during periods of anthropogenic influence. Secondary organic material, produced for the most part by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from the forest, was the largest source of liquid PM. Analyses of the mass spectra of the atmospheric PM by positive-matrix factorization (PMF)more » and of concentrations of carbon monoxide, total particle number, and oxides of nitrogen were used to identify time periods affected by anthropogenic influences, including both urban pollution and biomass burning. The occurrence of non-liquid PM correlated with these indicators of anthropogenic influence. A linear model having as output the rebound fraction and as input the PMF factor loadings explained up to 70% of the variance in the observed rebound fractions. Lastly, anthropogenic influences appear to favor non-liquid PM by providing molecular species that increase viscosity when internally mixed with background PM, by contributing non-liquid particles in external mixtures of PM, and a by combination of these effects under real-world conditions.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [5] ;  [8] ;  [4] ;  [9] ;  [5] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [2] ;  [7] more »;  [5] ;  [9] ;  [4] ;  [13] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1] « less
  1. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China)
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  5. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  8. National Institute of Amazonian Research, Amazonas (Brazil)
  9. Meteorological Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)
  10. Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
  11. Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  12. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  13. Amazonas State Univ., Amazonas (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1329921
Report Number(s):
BNL--112747-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7375; R&D Project: 2016-BNL-EE630EECA-Budg; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (Online); Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7375
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES