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Title: Qualitative Characterization of the Aqueous Fraction from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Using 2D Gas Chromatography with Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

Two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying components in complex mixtures. It has been used to analyze gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, bio-diesel and organic fraction of bio-crude/bio-oil. In these experiments, the first dimension of separation was non-polar, followed by a polar separation. Aqueous fractions of bio-crude and other aqueous samples have been examined with similar column combinations. However, sample preparation techniques such as derivatization, solvent extraction, and solid-phase extraction were necessary prior to analysis. In this study, aqueous fraction obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae was characterized by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry without prior sample preparation techniques using a polar separation in the first dimension followed by a non-polar separation. Two-dimensional plots from this analysis were compared with those obtained from the more traditional column combination. Results from qualitative characterization aqueous fractions of algal bio-crude are discussed in detail. The advantages of using a polar separation followed by a non-polar separation for characterization of organics in aqueous samples by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry are highlighted.
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Journal Article
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Journal Name: Journal of Visualized Experiments, 109:e53634
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
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Country of Publication:
United States
Bio-crude; bio-oil; bio-fuel; aqueous product; hydrothermal liquefaction; microalgae; biomass; aquatic biomass; GC × GC – TOF/MS; catalytic fast pyrolysis; pyridine; pyrazine; organic acids; succinimide.