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Title: Direct Mapping of Charge Distribution during Lithiation of Ge Nanowires Using Off-Axis Electron Holography

The successful operation of rechargeable batteries relies on reliable insertion/ extraction of ions into/from the electrodes. The battery performance and the response of the electrodes to such ion insertion and extraction are directly related to the spatial distribution of the charge and its dynamic evolution. However, it remains unclear how charge is distributed in the electrodes during normal battery operation. In this work, we have used offaxis electron holography to measure charge distribution during lithium ion insertion into a Ge nanowire (NW) under dynamic operating conditions. We discovered that the surface region of the Ge core is negatively charged during the core-shell lithiation of the Ge NW, which is counterbalanced by positive charge on the inner surface of the lithiated LixGe shell. The remainder of the lithiated LixGe shell is free from net charge, consistent with its metallic characteristics. The present work provides a vivid picture of charge distribution and dynamic evolution during Ge NW lithiation and should form the basis for tackling the response of these and related materials under real electrochemical conditions.
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984; 48379; KP1704020
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nano Letters; Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 6
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE Lithium ion battery; charge distribution; in situ TEM; electron holography; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory