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Title: Bifunctional Catalysts for Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Oxygenates: A Review

Deoxygenation is an important reaction in the conversion of biomass-derived oxygenates to fuels and chemicals. A key route for biomass refining involves the production of pyrolysis oil through rapid heating of the raw biomass feedstock. Pyrolysis oil as produced is highly oxygenated, so the feasibility of this approach depends in large part on the ability to selectively deoxygenate pyrolysis oil components to create a stream of high-value finished products. Identification of catalytic materials that are active and selective for deoxygenation of pyrolysis oil components has therefore represented a major research area. One catalyst is rarely capable of performing the different types of elementary reaction steps required to deoxygenate biomass-derived compounds. For this reason, considerable attention has been placed on bifunctional catalysts, where two different active materials are used to provide catalytic sites for diverse reaction steps. Here, we review recent trends in the development of catalysts, with a focus on catalysts for which a bifunctional effect has been proposed. We summarize recent studies of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil and model compounds for a range of materials, including supported metal and bimetallic catalysts as well as transition-metal oxides, sulfides, carbides, nitrides, and phosphides. Particular emphasis is placed on how catalystmore » structure can be related to performance via molecular-level mechanisms. These studies demonstrate the importance of catalyst bifunctionality, with each class of materials requiring hydrogenation and C-O scission sites to perform HDO at reasonable rates.« less
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2155-5435
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Catalysis; Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 8
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States))
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
Country of Publication:
United States
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY bifunctional; bimetallic; catalyst; hydrodeoxygenation; metal-metal oxide; tethered bifunctional catalysts