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Title: Ice Load Project Final Technical Report

As interest and investment in offshore wind projects increase worldwide, some turbines will be installed in locations where ice of significant thickness forms on the water surface. This ice moves under the driving forces of wind, current, and thermal effects and may result in substantial forces on bottom-fixed support structures. The North and Baltic Seas in Europe have begun to see significant wind energy development and the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada may host wind energy development in the near future. Design of the support structures for these projects is best performed through the use of an integrated tool that can calculate the cumulative effects of forces due to turbine operations, wind, waves, and floating ice. The dynamic nature of ice forces requires that these forces be included in the design simulations, rather than added as static forces to simulation results. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard[2] for offshore wind turbine design and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard[3] for offshore structures provide requirements and algorithms for the calculation of forces induced by surface ice; however, currently none of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes provides the ability to model ice loads. The scope ofmore » work of the project described in this report includes the development of a suite of subroutines, collectively named IceFloe, that meet the requirements of the IEC and ISO standards and couples with four of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes. The mechanisms by which ice forces impinge on offshore structures generally include the forces required for crushing of the ice against vertical-sided structures and the forces required to fracture the ice as it rides up on conical-sided structures. Within these two broad categories, the dynamic character of the forces with respect to time is also dependent on other factors such as the velocity and thickness of the moving ice and the response of the structure. In some cases, the dynamic effects are random and in other cases they are deterministic, such as the effect of structural resonance and coupling of the ice forces with the defection of the support structure. The initial versions of the IceFloe routines incorporate modules that address these varied force and dynamic phenomena with seven alternative algorithms that can be specified by the user. The IceFloe routines have been linked and tested with four major wind turbine aeroelastic simulation codes: FAST, a tool developed under the management of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and available free of charge from its web site; Bladed[4], a widely-used commercial package available from DNV GL; ADAMS[5], a general purpose multi-body simulation code used in the wind industry and available from MSC Software; and HAWC2[6], a code developed by and available for purchase from Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU). Interface routines have been developed and tested with full wind turbine simulations for each of these codes and the source code and example inputs and outputs are available from the NREL website.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. IFC Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
17 WIND ENERGY Surface Ice; support structure; wind turbine; aeroelastic; FAST; loading