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Title: Computational Strategy for Quantifying Human Pesticide Exposure based upon a Saliva Measurement

The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using amore » combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between rats and humans. Ongoing efforts are focused on extending this modeling strategy to an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system that will be utilized to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for a broad range of xenobiotics. Hence, it is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of both environmental and occupational exposure in human populations using saliva.« less
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Resource Type:
Journal Article
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Journal Name: Frontiers in Pharmacology, 6:Article No. 115
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
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Country of Publication:
United States
compuational strategy; quantifying; human pesticide; saliva measurement