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Title: A uniform contribution of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae to the chemical enrichment pattern in the outskirts of the Virgo Cluster

We present the first measurements of the abundances of α-elements (Mg, Si, and S) extending out beyond the virial radius of a cluster of galaxies. Our results, based on Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, show that the chemical composition of the intracluster medium is consistent with being constant on large scales, with a flat distribution of the Si/Fe, S/Fe, and Mg/Fe ratios as a function of radius and azimuth out to 1.4 Mpc (1.3 r200). Chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium due solely to core-collapse supernovae (SNcc) is excluded with very high significance; instead, the measured metal abundance ratios are generally consistent with the solar value. The uniform metal abundance ratios observed today are likely the result of an early phase of enrichment and mixing, with both SNcc and SNe Ia contributing to the metal budget during the period of peak star formation activity at redshifts of 2–3. Furthermore, we estimate the ratio between the number of SNe Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 12% and 37%, broadly consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy or with the SN Ia contribution estimated for the cluster cores.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2]
  1. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Kanagawa (Japan)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Kanagawa (Japan); Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; arXiv:1506.06164
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 811; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS astrophysics; ASTRO; galaxies: clusters: individual (Virgo Cluster); galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium; ISM: abundances; X-rays: galaxies: clusters