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Title: Spatially-resolved mapping of history-dependent coupled electrochemical and electronical behaviors of electroresistive NiO

Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between history-dependent electronic transport and electrochemical phenomena in a NiO single crystalline thin film with a number of well-defined defect types is explored on the nanometer scale using an atomic force microscopy-based technique. A variety of electrochemically-active regions were observed and spatially resolved relationship between the electronic and electrochemical phenomena was revealed. The regions with pronounced electroresistive activity were further correlated with defects identified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using fully coupled mechanical-electrochemical modeling, we illustrate that the spatial distribution of strain plays an important role in electrochemical and electroresistive phenomena. In conclusion, these studies illustrate an approach for simultaneous mapping of the electronic and ionic transport on a single defective structure level such as dislocations or interfaces, and pave the way for creating libraries of defect-specific electrochemical responses.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [3]
  1. The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
  2. Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Queen's Univ. Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
  5. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  6. The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan); Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Aichi (Japan)
  7. The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); PRESTO Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama (Japan)
  8. The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Aichi (Japan); Tohoku Univ., Miyagi (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
CNMS2012-230; 12024046; 2368093l 25106003
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY electrochemistry; electronic devices; scanning probe microscopy; surfaces, interfaces and thin films