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Title: XPS Determination of Mn Oxidation States in Mn (Hydr)oxides

Hydrous manganese oxides are an important class of minerals that help regulate the geochemical redox cycle in near-surface environments and are also considered to be promising catalysts for energy applications such as the oxidation of water. A complete characterization of these minerals is required to better understand their catalytic activity. In this contribution an empirical methodology using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is developed to quantify the oxidation state of hydrous multivalent manganese oxides with an emphasis on birnessite, a common layered structure that occurs readily in Nature but is also the oxidized endmember in biomimetic water-oxidation catalysts. The Mn2p3/2, Mn3p, and Mn3s lines of near monovalent Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV) oxides were fit with component peaks; after the best fit was obtained the relative widths, heights and binding energies of the components were fixed. Unknown multivalent samples were fit such that binding energies, intensities, and widths of each oxidation state, composed of a packet of correlated component peaks, were allowed vary. whereas widths were constrained to maintain the difference between the standards. Both average and individual mole fraction oxidation states for all three energy levels were strongly correlated with close agreement between Mn3s and Mn3p, whereas Mn2p3/2 gave systematically moremore » reduced results. Limited stoichiometric analyses were consistent with Mn3p and Mn3s. Further, evidence indicates the shape of the Mn3p line was less sensitive to the bonding environment than Mn2p. Consequently, fitting the Mn3p and Mn3s lines yields robust quantification of oxidation states over a range of hydrous Mn oxide polytypes and compositions. In contrast, a common method for determining oxidation states that utilizes the multiplet splitting of the Mn3s line is not appropriate for birnessites.« less
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
47509; 48389; KC0302060
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Surface Science, 366:475-485
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
Manganese, birnessite, oxidation state, XPS, methodology; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory