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Title: Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based onmore » the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease of operation, ability to analyze samples in their native environments, speed of analysis, and ability to tune the extraction solvent composition to a problem at hand. For example, solvent composition may be optimized for efficient extraction of different classes of analytes from the sample or for quantification or online derivatization through reactive analysis. In this review, we will: 1) introduce individual liquid extraction techniques capable of localized analysis and imaging, 2) describe approaches for quantitative MSI experiments free of matrix effects, 3) discuss advantages of reactive analysis for MSI experiments, and 4) highlight selected applications (published between 2012 and 2015) that focus on imaging and spatial profiling of molecules in complex biological and environmental samples.« less
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-2700; 400412000
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Analytical Chemistry; Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 1
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States