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Title: Identification of a novel nematotoxic protein by challenging the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea with a fungivorous nematode

The dung of herbivores, the natural habitat of the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, is a nutrient-rich but also very competitive environment for a saprophytic fungus. Previously we showed that C. cinerea expresses constitutive, tissue-specific armories against antagonists such as animal predators and bacterial competitors. In order to dissect the inducible armories against such antagonists, we sequenced the poly(A)-positive transcriptome of C. cinerea vegetative mycelium upon challenge with fungivorous and bacterivorous nematodes, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and mechanical damage. As a response to the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae, C. cinerea was found to specifically induce the transcription of several genes encoding previously characterized nematotoxic lectins. In addition, a previously not characterized gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein with several predicted Ricin B-fold domains, was found to be strongly up-regulated under this condition. Functional analysis of the recombinant protein revealed a high toxicity towards the bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Challenge of the mycelium with A. avenae also lead to the induction of several genes encoding putative antibacterial proteins. Some of these genes were also induced upon challenge of the mycelium with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Lastly, these results suggest that fungi have the ability to induce specific innate defense responsesmore » similar to plants and animals.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)
  2. Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California (United States)
Publication Date:
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Accepted Manuscript
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Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-1836
Genetics Society of America
Research Org:
Univ. of California (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES basidiomycete; fungal defense; RNA sequencing; CCTX2; transcriptomics