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Title: Evidence of Technetium and Iodine from a Sodalite-Bearing Ceramic Waste Form

Current plans for nuclear waste vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) lack the capacity to treat all of the low activity waste (LAW) that is not encapsulated in the vitrified product. Several technologies are being considered to treat the excess LAW. One such technology is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR process results in a granular product composed of feldspathoid mineral phases that immobilize the major components in the LAW as well as other contaminants of concern (COCs), with Tc and I expected to be present in sodalite cages formed during the process. In order to meet compressive strength requirements at the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), the granular product may be encapsulated in a monolith. To demonstrate the ability of the technology to serve the mission of managing excess LAW, Single Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) tests have been performed on non-radioactive granular materials and granular materials encapsulated in a geopolymer binder produced at the engineering- and bench-scale as well as a granular product produced at the bench scale with actual Hanford tank waste. SPFT tests were conducted at 40 °C for durations up to 2 months with a flow-through solution buffered at pH 9.more » The forward reaction rate of the non-radioactive mineral product dissolution based on Si release for the granular product was measured to be (6.2 ± 2.1) × 10-4 g/m2d for the engineering-scale product and (13 ± 4.9) × 10-4 g/m2d for the bench-scale product. The resulting non-radioactive monoliths showed forward reaction rates based on Si release of (3.4 ± 1.1) × 10-4 g/m2d for the engineering-scale material and (4.2 ± 1.5) × 10-4 g/m2d for the bench-scale material demonstrating that encapsulation of the FBSR granular product in a monolith does not significantly alter the performance of the material. Finally, an FBSR granular product created at the bench scale using actual Hanford LAW gave similar release values and also demonstrated that Re and Tc show similar release behavior with a dilute-condition release rate of (1.1 ± 0.5) × 10-4 g/m2d for Tc and (1.6 ± 0.6) × 10-4 g/m2d for Re. We believe that this is the first demonstration to show that Re and I have similar release behavior and that similar behavior of Re and Tc also occurs. These results indicate that the FBSR mineral product may be a suitable supplementary immobilization technique at the Hanford site and they also suggest that both Tc and Re occupy similar sites in the sodalite cage structure.« less
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0883-2927; 830403000
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Geochemistry; Journal Volume: 66
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
LAW; secondary waste; fluidized bed steam reforming; Hanford site cleanup