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Title: Ceramic micro-injection molded nozzles for serial femtosecond crystallography sample delivery

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs) allows for room temperature protein structure determination without evidence of conventional radiation damage. In this method, a liquid suspension of protein microcrystals can be delivered to the X-ray beam in vacuum as a micro-jet, which replenishes the crystals at a rate that exceeds the current XFEL pulse repetition rate. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles produce the required micrometer-sized streams by the focusing action of a coaxial sheath gas and have been shown to be effective for SFX experiments. Here, we describe the design and characterization of such nozzles assembled from ceramic micro-injection molded outer gas-focusing capillaries. Trends of the emitted jet diameter and jet length as a function of supplied liquid and gas flow rates are measured by a fast imaging system. The observed trends are explained by derived relationships considering choked gas flow and liquidflow conservation. In conclusion, the performance of these nozzles in a SFX experiment is presented, including an analysis of the observed background.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  3. Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-StraBe, Geesthacht (Germany)
  5. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ceramics; gas liquid flows; x-ray scattering; proteins; fluid drops