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Title: Room temperature, hybrid sodium-based flow batteries with multi-electron transfer redox reactions

We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Wanger Institute for Sustainable Energy Research, Chicago, IL (United States); Materials and Aerospace Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322; srep11215
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE energy-storage; photovoltaic systems; composite membrane; exchange membrane; nafion membrane; couple; separator; transport; electrode; density; batteries; environmental sciences