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Title: Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to addmore » capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum baseline all filament wound vessel. Due to project timing, there was no additional time available to fine tune the design to improve the load transfer between AFP and FW. Further design modifications will likely help pass the extreme temperature cycle test, the remaining test that is critical to the hybrid design.« less
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)
  2. Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T), Seattle, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DE-FG36-08--GO18055 Final Report
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Program (EE-3F)
Country of Publication:
United States
08 HYDROGEN hydrogen; storage; composite tank; pressure vessel; carbon fiber; advanced fiber placement