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Title: X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging of Calcified Tissue and Biomaterial Structure in Bioreactor Engineered Tissues

Tissues engineered in bioreactor systems have been used clinically to replace damaged tissues and organs. In addition, these systems are under continued development for many tissue engineering applications. The ability to quantitatively assess material structure and tissue formation is critical for evaluating bioreactor efficacy and for preimplantation assessment of tissue quality. These techniques allow for the nondestructive and longitudinal monitoring of large engineered tissues within the bioreactor systems and will be essential for the translation of these strategies to viable clinical therapies. X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) imaging techniques have shown tremendous promise for a number of biomedical applications owing to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties, including absorption, refraction, and scatter. In this research, mesenchymal stem cell-seeded alginate hydrogels were prepared and cultured under osteogenic conditions in a perfusion bioreactor. The constructs were imaged at various time points using XPC microcomputed tomography (µCT). Imaging was performed with systems using both synchrotron- and tube-based X-ray sources. XPC µCT allowed for simultaneous three-dimensional (3D) quantification of hydrogel size and mineralization, as well as spatial information on hydrogel structure and mineralization. Samples were processed for histological evaluation and XPC showed similar features to histology and quantitative analysis consistentmore » with the histomorphometry. Furthermore, these results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for noninvasive 3D imaging engineered tissues grown in bioreactors.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, IL (United States)
  2. George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1097-0290
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biotechnology and Bioengineering (Online); Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: 3
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
x-ray phase contrast; micro-computed tomography; bioreactor; alginate microbeads; synchrotron; analyzer-based imaging