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Title: Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynes 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbinemore » partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated which demonstrated the importance of proper heat treat cycles for Homogenization, and Solutionizing parameters selection and implementation. 3) Step blocks casting of Nimonic 263: Carried out casting solidification simulation analysis, NDT inspection methods evaluation, detailed test matrix for Chemical, Tensile, LCF, stress rupture, CVN impact, hardness and J1C Fracture toughness section sensitivity data and were reported. 4) Centrifugal Casting of Haynes 282, weighing 1400 lbs. with hybrid mold (half Graphite and half Chromite sand) mold assembly was cast using compressor casing production tooling. This test provided Mold cooling rates influence on centrifugally cast microstructure and mechanical properties. Graphite mold section out performs sand mold across all temperatures for 0.2% YS; %Elongation, %RA, UTS at 1400°F. Both Stress-LMP and conditional Fracture toughness plots data were in the scatter band of the wrought alloy. 5) Fundamental Studies on Cooling rates and SDAS test program. Evaluated the influence of 6 mold materials Silica, Chromite, Alumina, Silica with Indirect Chills, Zircon and Graphite on casting solidification cooling rates. Actual Casting cooling rates through Liquidus to Solidus phase transition were measured with 3 different locations based thermocouples placed in each mold. Compared with solidification simulation cooling rates and measurement of SDAS, microstructure features were reported. The test results provided engineered casting potential methods, applicable for heavy section Haynes 282 castings for optimal properties, with foundry process methods and tools. 6) Large casting of Haynes 282 Drawings and Engineering FEM models and supplemental requirements with applicable specifications were provided to suppliers for the steam turbine proto type feature valve casing casting. Molding, melting and casting pouring completed per approved Manufacturing Process Plan during 2014 Q4. The partial valve casing was successfully cast after casting methods were validated with solidification simulation analysis and the casting met NDT inspection and acceptance criteria. Heat treated and sectioned to extract trepan samples at different locations comparing with cast on coupons test data. Material properties requisite for design, such as tensile, creep/rupture, LCF, Fracture Toughness, Charpy V-notch chemical analysis testing were carried out. The test results will be presented in the final report. The typical Haynes 282 large size Steam Turbine production casting from Order to Delivery foundry schedule with the activity break up is shown in Figures 107 and 108. • From Purchase Order placement to Casting pouring ~ 26 weeks. 1. Sales and commercial review 3 2. Engineering Drawings/models review 4 3. Pattern and core box manufacturing 6 4. Casting process engineering review 4 5. FEM and solidification simulation analysis 4 6. Gating & Feeder Attachments, Ceramic tiling 2 7. Molding and coremaking production scheduling 6 8. Melting planning and schedule 3 9. Pouring, cooling and shake out 2 • From Pouring to casting Delivery ~ 29 weeks 10. Shot blast and riser cutting, gates removal 3 11. Homogenizing , solutionizing HT furnace prep 4 12. Grinding, Fettling 2 13. Aging HT Cycle, cooling 2 14. VT and LPT NDT inspections 2 15. Radiographic inspection 4 16. Mechanical testing, Chemical analysis test certs 4 17. Casting weld repair upgrades and Aging PWHT 4 18. NDT after weld repairs and casting upgrades 3 19. Casting Final Inspection and test certifications 3 20. Package and delivery 2 Hence the Total Lead time from P.O to Casting delivery is approximately 55 weeks. The Task 4.2 and Task 4.3 activities and reporting completed.« less
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Energy Industries Of Ohio Incorporated
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Country of Publication:
United States