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Title: Preparation and Testing of Corrosion-and Spallation-Resistant Coatings

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding and involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing to determine the diffusion rate of Zn through the alloys has been completed. We have found that we were not able to create joints when temperatures much lower than the original temperature of 1214°C are used. Therefore, we limited our diffusion rate measurements to the two hold temperatures used in the procedure: 700° and 1214°C. The diffusivity of zinc in both APMT and CM247LC is quite similar at 700°C. Diffusivity in the APMT appearsmore » to be slightly higher, but the midline composition after 30 minutes at this temperature is quite similar. At 1214°C, the situation is very different. The calculated diffusivity of zinc in APMT is approximately 15 times higher than in CM247LC or Rene® 80 (~120 vs. ~8 μm²/min) at that temperature. In addition to the diffusion work, the coefficients of thermal expansions were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information has been entered into a finite element model using ANSYS so that appropriate force-applying structures can be designed for use in joining structures composed of APMT and the nickel alloys. Gasifier sampling activities continue to determine what types of trace contaminants may occur in cleaned syngas that could lead to corrosion or deposition in turbines firing coal syngas. The EERC has several pilot-scale gasifiers that are continually used in a variety of test configurations as determined by the needs of the projects that are funding the tests. We are sampling both noncombusted and combusted syngas produced during some of the pilot-scale gasifier tests. After modifying our sampling procedures to minimize contamination from the oxidizer, we obtained very good filter samples from both syngas and from the combustion products of the syngas blended with natural gas. Scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that the particles captured on the filter from the syngas were typically 0.2 to 0.5 μm in diameter, whereas those captured from the combusted syngas were slightly larger and more spherical. However, the particles were so small that we could not obtain good spectra from them either at the EERC or JEOL America, the maker of the EERC electron microscope systems. Therefore, the EERC applied for and received time on electron microscopes using different signal analyzers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) ShaRE User Facility, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Scientific User Facilities Division of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. At ORNL, both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy were performed on the samples because these are surface analyses that analyze electrons emitted from within a few nanometers of the surfaces of the particles and filters. The XPS data show that the particles do not contain any metals and, in fact, have an atomic composition almost identical to that of the polycarbonate filter. We currently believe that this indicates that the particles are primarily soot-based and not formed from volatilization of metals in the fluid-bed gasifier. The data indicate that the soot-based particles are not well burned in the thermal oxidizer, although they are significantly oxidized, nitrided, and sulfidized in the combustor. Ion etching to remove the surfaces of the particles indicates that the oxidation, nitridation, and sulfidation of the particles are primarily surface phenomena.« less
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University Of North Dakota
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United States
Electric; Turbines