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Title: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. RePPAE
  3. Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States)
  4. GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind Program (EE-4W) (Wind Program Corporate)
Country of Publication:
United States
wind; WWSIS; western wind and solar; integration; grid; interconnection; phase 2; phase two; penetration