Title: Rare-event Simulation for Stochastic Korteweg-de Vries Equation

An asymptotic analysis of the tail probabilities for the dynamics of a soliton wave $U(x,t)$ under a stochastic time-dependent force is developed. The dynamics of the soliton wave $U(x,t)$ is described by the Korteweg-de Vries Equation with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions under a stochastic time-dependent force, which is modeled as a time-dependent Gaussian noise with amplitude $$\epsilon$$. The tail probability we considered is $$w(b) :=P(\sup_{t\in [0,T]} U(x,t) > b ),$$ as $$b\rightarrow \infty,$$ for some constant $T>0$ and a fixed $x$, which can be interpreted as tail probability of the amplitude of water wave on shallow surface of a fluid or long internal wave in a density-stratified ocean. Our goal is to characterize the asymptotic behaviors of $w(b)$ and to evaluate the tail probability of the event that the soliton wave exceeds a certain threshold value under a random force term. Such rare-event calculation of $w(b)$ is very useful for fast estimation of the risk of the potential damage that could caused by the water wave in a density-stratified ocean modeled by the stochastic KdV equation. In this work, the asymptotic approximation of the probability that the soliton wave exceeds a high-level $b$ is derived. In addition, we develop a provably efficient rare-event simulation algorithm to compute $w(b)$. The efficiency of the algorithm only requires mild conditions and therefore it is applicable to a general class of Gaussian processes and many diverse applications.