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Title: The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI were investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 %more » EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.« less
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  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  3. Wisconsin Engine Research Consultants, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Emission Control Science & Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2199-3629
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center
Sponsoring Org:
ORNL work for others; USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS reactivity controlled compression ignition; particulate matter; low temperature combustion