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Title: Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of moremore » than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2211-8128; TRN: US1600482
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Procedia Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2211-8128
Research Org:
Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES vitrification; glass melter; nepheline; spinel; waste loading