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Title: An Injectable Apatite Permeable Reactive Barrier for In Situ 90Sr Immobilization

An injectable permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology was developed to sequester 90Sr in groundwater through the in situ formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases, specifically apatite that incorporates 90Sr into the chemical structure. An integrated, multi-scale development and testing approach was used that included laboratory bench-scale experiments, an initial pilot-scale field test, and the emplacement and evaluation of a 300-ft-long treatability-test-scale PRB. Standard groundwater wells were used for emplacement of the treatment zone, allowing treatment of contaminants too deep below ground surface for trench-and-fill type PRB technologies. The apatite amendment formulation uses two separate precursor solutions, one containing a Ca-citrate complex and the other a Na-phosphate solution, to form apatite precipitate in situ. Citrate is needed to keep calcium in solution long enough to achieve a more uniform and areally extensive distribution of precipitate formation. In the summer of 2008, the apatite PRB technology was applied as a 91-m (300-ft) -long permeable reactive barrier on the downgradient edge of a 90Sr plume beneath the Hanford Site in Washington State. The technology was deployed to reduce 90Sr flux discharging to the Columbia River. Performance assessment monitoring data collected to date indicate the barrier is meeting performance objectives. The average reduction in 90Srmore » concentrations at four downgradient compliance monitoring locations was 95% relative to the high end of the baseline range approximately 1 year after treatment, and continues to meet remedial objectives more than 4 years after treatment.« less
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Publication Date:
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Report Number(s):
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Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 34(2):28-41
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
injectable apatite permeable reactive barrier; PRB; in situ 90Sr immobilization