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Title: Application of electrically invisible antennas to the Modulated Scatterer Technique

The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve the MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. Our paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0018-9456; 522006
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0018-9456
Research Org:
Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY dual-loaded scatterer; invisible antennas; microwave imaging; modulated scatterer technique; modulation depth