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Title: A comparative analysis of the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods

While conventional low-pressure LH₂ dewars have existed for decades, advanced methods of cryogenic hydrogen storage have recently been developed. These advanced methods are cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage, which operate best in the temperature range 30–100 K. We present a comparative analysis of both approaches for cryogenic hydrogen storage, examining how pressure and/or sorbent materials are used to effectively increase onboard H₂ density and dormancy. We start by reviewing some basic aspects of LH₂ properties and conventional means of storing it. From there we describe the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods, and then explore the relationship between them, clarifying the materials science and physics of the two approaches in trying to solve the same hydrogen storage task (~5–8 kg H₂, typical of light duty vehicles). Assuming that the balance of plant and the available volume for the storage system in the vehicle are identical for both approaches, the comparison focuses on how the respective storage capacities, vessel weight and dormancy vary as a function of temperature, pressure and type of cryo-adsorption material (especially, powder MOF-5 and MIL-101). By performing a comparative analysis, we clarify the science of each approach individually, identify the regimes where the attributes of each canmore » be maximized, elucidate the properties of these systems during refueling, and probe the possible benefits of a combined “hybrid” system with both cryo-adsorption and cryo-compression phenomena operating at the same time. In addition the relationships found between onboard H₂ capacity, pressure vessel and/or sorbent mass and dormancy as a function of rated pressure, type of sorbent material and fueling conditions are useful as general designing guidelines in future engineering efforts using these two hydrogen storage approaches.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres (Canada)
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0360-3199
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy; Journal Volume: 39; Journal Issue: 20
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
08 HYDROGEN; 42 ENGINEERING; 25 ENERGY STORAGE cryo-compressed; sorbents; cryogenic hydrogen onboard storage; dormancy; pressure vessel design