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Title: Cell degradation of a Na–NiCl2 (ZEBRA) battery

In this work, the parameters influencing the degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) battery were investigated. Planar Na-NiCl2 cells using β”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) were tested with different C-rates, Ni/NaCl ratios, and capacity windows, in order to identify the key parameters for the degradation of Na-NiCl2 battery. The morphology of NaCl and Ni particles were extensively investigated after 60 cycles under various test conditions using a scanning electron microscope. A strong correlation between the particle size (NaCl and Ni) and battery degradation was observed in this work. Even though the growth of both Ni and NaCl can influence the cell degradation, our results indicate that the growth of NaCl is a dominant factor in cell degradation. The use of excess Ni seems to play a role in tolerating the negative effects of particle growth on degradation since the available active surface area of Ni particles can be still sufficient even after particle growth. For NaCl, a large cycling window was the most significant factor, of which effects were amplified with decrease in Ni/NaCl ratio.
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  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488; JMCAET; TE1400000
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A; Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 47
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE Zebra battery, Cell degradation, Na-NiCl2 battery