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Title: Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to more » appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States. « less
Authors: ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:OSTI ID: 1036392
Report Number(s):DOE/GO-102012-3456
KNDJ-0-40342-00; TRN: US201206%%397
DOE Contract Number:AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:Technical Report
Resource Relation:Related Information: Work performed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. of the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)
Research Org:National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO.
Sponsoring Org:USDOE Office of Building Technologies Program
Country of Publication:United States
Language:English
Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; BUILDERS; COMPRESSION; CONTRACTORS; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; EVALUATION; HEAT PUMPS; HOT WATER; HOUSEHOLDS; MAINTENANCE; PERFORMANCE; RECOMMENDATIONS; RELIABILITY; WATER HEATERS; WATER HEATING HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER; BASEMENT; USAGE PATTERNS; ELECTRIC RESISTANCE BACKUP; Buildings; Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems