skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on October 7, 2017

Title: The effect of sub-oxide phases on the transparency of tin-doped gallium oxide

There have been a number of studies on the fabrication of Sn-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3:Sn) films with both conductive and transparent properties using a variety of deposition methods. However, often, synthesis results in films that are not transparent. In this paper, we examine the mechanisms underlying these results in Ga2O3:Sn thin films prepared at various growth temperatures, Sn concentrations, and oxygen partial pressures. With X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we find that when films are grown under the oxygen deficient conditions there are Ga sub-oxide and SnOx phases in the Ga2O3:Sn thin film. These Ga sub-oxide phases are only found in non-transparent films, and so we infer that the Ga sub-oxide is responsible for the non-transparency. Furthermore, these observations suggest that to obtain transparent Ga2O3:Sn, films deposition or subsequent annealing must be carefully controlled in both temperature and oxygen partial pressure to avoid the formation of Ga sub-oxide phases.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  4. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  5. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; APPLAB
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; AC02-76SF00515; AC36-08GO28308
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY x-ray absorption near edge structure; extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy; thin film growth; x-ray absorption spectroscopy