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Title: Cryo-quenched Fe-Ni-Cr alloy single crystals: A new decorative steel

In this paper, a decorative steel is described that is formed by a process that is unlike that of the fabrication methods utilized in making the original Damascus steels over 2000 years ago. The decorative aspect of the steel arises from a three-dimensional surface pattern that results from cryogenically quenching polished austenitic alloy single crystals into the martensitic phase that is present below 190 K. No forging operations are involved – the mechanism is entirely based on the metallurgical phase properties of the ternary alloy. The symmetry of the decorative pattern is determined and controlled by the crystallographic orientation and symmetry of the 70%Fe,15%Ni,15%Cr alloy single crystals. Finally, in addition to using “cuts” made along principal crystallographic surface directions, an effectively infinite number of other random-orientation “cuts” can be utilized to produce decorative patterns where each pattern is unique after the austenitic-to-martensitic phase transformation.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences
  3. Nanomechanics, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 691; Journal ID: ISSN 0925-8388
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Nanomechanics, Inc. (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Metals and alloys; Crystal growth; Optical properties; Phase transition; Light absorption and reflection; Metallography