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Title: The cell-in-series method: A technique for accelerated electrode degradation in redox flow batteries

Here, we demonstrate a novel method to accelerate electrode degradation in redox flow batteries and apply this method to the all-vanadium chemistry. Electrode performance degradation occurred seven times faster than in a typical cycling experiment, enabling rapid evaluation of materials. This method also enables the steady-state study of electrodes. In this manner, it is possible to delineate whether specific operating conditions induce performance degradation; we found that both aggressively charging and discharging result in performance loss. Post-mortem x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the degraded electrodes was used to resolve the effects of state of charge (SoC) and current on the electrode surface chemistry. For the electrode material tested in this work, we found evidence that a loss of oxygen content on the negative electrode cannot explain decreased cell performance. Furthermore, the effects of decreased electrode and membrane performance on capacity fade in a typical cycling battery were decoupled from crossover; electrode and membrane performance decay were responsible for a 22% fade in capacity, while crossover caused a 12% fade.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1324215
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 163; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE aqueous battery; degradation; durability; electrode; energy storage; polarization curve; redox flow battery; vanadium; XPS