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Title: Bioaccumulation of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in Tetrahymena thermophila by Direct Feeding or Trophic Transfer

We report that consumer goods contain multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that could be released during product life cycles into the environment, where their effects are uncertain. Here, we assessed MWCNT bioaccumulation in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila via trophic transfer from bacterial prey (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) versus direct uptake from growth media. The experiments were conducted using 14C-labeled MWCNT (14C-MWCNT) doses at or below 1 mg/L, which proved subtoxic since there were no adverse effects on the growth of the test organisms. A novel contribution of this study was the demonstration of the ability to quantify MWCNT bioaccumulation at low (sub μg/kg) concentrations accomplished by employing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After the treatments with MWCNTs at nominal concentrations of 0.01 mg/L and 1 mg/L, P. aeruginosa adsorbed considerable amounts of MWCNTs: (0.18 ± 0.04) μg/mg and (21.9 ± 4.2) μg/mg bacterial dry mass, respectively. At the administered MWCNT dose of 0.3 mg/L, T. thermophila accumulated up to (0.86 ± 0.3) μg/mg and (3.4 ± 1.1) μg/mg dry mass by trophic transfer and direct uptake, respectively.Finally, aAlthough MWCNTs did not biomagnify in the microbial food chain, MWCNTs bioaccumulated in the protozoan populations regardless of the feeding regime, which could make MWCNTs bioavailable formore » organisms at higher trophic levels.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), Earth Research Inst., Bren School of Environmental Science and Management; National Inst. of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia). Lab. of Environmental Toxicology
  2. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Biosystems and Biomaterials Division
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
  4. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology
  5. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), Earth Research Inst., Bren School of Environmental Science and Managemen
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1305849
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL--681494
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; PUTJD16
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES multiwall carbon nanotubes; MWCNT; Tetrahymena thermophila