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Title: Evolution and current understanding of physicochemical characterization of particulate matter from reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion on a multicylinder light-duty engine

Low-temperature compression ignition combustion can result in nearly smokeless combustion, as indicated by a smoke meter or other forms of soot measurement that rely on absorbance due to elemental carbon content. Highly premixed low-temperature combustion modes do not form particulate matter in the traditional pathways seen with conventional diesel combustion. Previous research into reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter has shown, despite a near zero smoke number, significant mass can be collected on filter media used for particulate matter certification measurement. In addition, particulate matter size distributions reveal that a fraction of the particles survive heated double-dilution conditions. This paper summarizes research completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to date on characterizing the nature, chemistry and aftertreatment considerations of reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter and presents new research highlighting the importance of injection strategy and fuel composition on reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter formation. Particle size measurements and the transmission electron microscopy results do show the presence of soot particles; however, the elemental carbon fraction was, in many cases, within the uncertainty of the thermal–optical measurement. Particulate matter emitted during reactivity controlled compression ignition operation was also collected with a novel sampling technique and analyzed by thermal desorptionmore » or pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Particulate matter speciation results indicated that the high boiling range of diesel hydrocarbons was likely responsible for the particulate matter mass captured on the filter media. Finally, to investigate potential fuel chemistry effects, either ethanol or biodiesel were incorporated to assess whether oxygenated fuels may enhance particle emission reduction.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Inst. of Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1302892
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: International Journal of Engine Research; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-0874
Publisher:
SAGE
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 42 ENGINEERING particulate matter; reactivity controlled compression ignition; dual fuel; low-temperature combustion