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Title: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes)

A detailed high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is presented in this work for select MXenes—a recently discovered family of two-dimensional (2D) carbides and carbonitrides. Given their 2D nature, understanding their surface chemistry is paramount. Thus we identify and quantify the surface groups present before, and after, sputter-cleaning as well as freshly prepared vs. aged multi-layered cold pressed discs. The nominal compositions of the MXenes studied here are Ti3C2Tx, Ti2CTx, Ti3CNTx, Nb2CTx and Nb4C3Tx, where T represents surface groups that this work attempts to quantify. In all the cases, the presence of three surface terminations, single bondO, single bondOH and single bondF, in addition to OH-terminations relatively strongly bonded to H2O molecules, was confirmed. Moreover, from XPS peak fits, it was possible to establish the average sum of the negative charges of the terminations for the aforementioned MXenes. Based on this work, it is now possible to quantify the nature of the surface terminations. This information can, in turn, be used to better design and tailor these novel 2D materials for various applications.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Linkoping Univ. (Sweden)
  2. Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, MD (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Linkoping Univ. (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1286976
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Surface Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 362; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0169-4332
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY MXene; XPS; metal carbides