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Title: Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Lastly, the correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [4]
  1. Konkuk Univ. Seoul (Korea); Creative Research Center for Graphene Electronics, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon (Korea)
  2. Univ. of Seoul, Seoul (Korea)
  3. Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea)
  4. Konkuk Univ. Seoul (Korea)
  5. Creative Research Center for Graphene Electronics, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon (Korea)
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1256046
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE