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Title: Introduction: Observations and modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed themore » atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. In addition, the G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and biomass burning seasons, respectively. The Manaus plume is present year-round, and it is transported by prevailing northeasterly and easterly winds in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. This introduction also organizes information relevant to many papers in the special issue. Information is provided on the vehicle fleet, power plants, and industrial activities of Manaus. The mesoscale and synoptic meteorologies relevant to the two IOPs are presented. Regional and long-range transport of emissions during the two IOPs is discussed based on satellite observations across South America and Africa. Fire locations throughout the airshed are detailed. In conjunction with the context and motivation of GoAmazon2014/5 as presented in this introduction, research articles including thematic overview articles are anticipated in this special issue to describe the detailed results and findings of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [2] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ;  [8] ;  [2] ;  [12] ;  [14]
  1. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
  3. National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)
  4. National Institute of Amazonian Research, Amazonas (Brazil)
  5. Amazonas State Univ., Amazonas (Brazil)
  6. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
  7. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  8. Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)
  9. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  10. Aeronautic and Space Institute, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)
  11. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  12. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
  13. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  14. Univ. of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
European Geosciences Union
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States