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Title: Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists

To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose. Similar functional categories of nonorthologous genes are induced in symbiosis. Of induced genes, 7-38% are orphan genes, including genes that encode secreted effector-like proteins. Convergent evolution of the mycorrhizal habit in fungi occurred via the repeated evolution of a 'symbiosis toolkit', with reduced numbers of PCWDEs and lineage-specific suites of mycorrhiza-induced genes.
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1242700
Report Number(s):
LBNL--177846
Journal ID: ISSN 1061-4036; ir:177846
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Genetics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 47; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1061-4036
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Genomics Div.
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Joint Genome Inst.; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES