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Title: Nanoscale elastic changes in 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene) pseudocapacitive electrodes

Designing sustainable electrodes for next generation energy storage devices relies on the understanding of their fundamental properties at the nanoscale, including the comprehension of ions insertion into the electrode and their interactions with the active material. One consequence of ion storage is the change in the electrode volume resulting in mechanical strain and stress that can strongly affect the cycle life. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes of dimensions and mechanical properties occurring during electrochemical reactions. While the characterization of mechanical properties via macroscopic measurements is well documented, in-situ characterization of their evolution has never been achieved at the nanoscale. Two dimensional (2D) carbides, known as MXenes, are promising materials for supercapacitors and various kinds of batteries, and understating the coupling between their mechanical and electrochemical properties is therefore necessary. Here we report on in-situ imaging, combined with density functional theory of the elastic changes, of a 2D titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) electrode in direction normal to the basal plane during cation intercalation. The results show a strong correlation between the Li+ ions content and the elastic modulus, whereas little effects of K+ ions are observed. Moreover, this strategy enables identifying the preferential intercalation pathways within a single particle.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science
  2. Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA
  3. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA
  4. Department of Materials Science and Engineering and A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science ; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1240569
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; AC0500OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Advanced Energy Materials; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Publisher:
Wiley
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY MXene; cation intercalation; elastic modulus; contact resonance atomic force microscopy